Gina S. Brown, dean for the College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences at Howard University (left) and Eileen Sullivan-Marx, dean of NYU Meyers (right)
Howard University’s College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences and New York University’s Rory Meyers College of Nursing have formed an educational and research partnership to work together to have a greater impact on improving health and health equity in urban areas and global communities.
“We are ecstatic to be in partnership with such a prestigious educational institution as NYU Meyers at such a critical time within our nation’s health care cataclysm,” said Gina S. Brown, PhD, MSA, RN, FAAN, dean for the College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences at Howard University. “The potential collaborations are endless.”
The new partnership will enable nursing researchers at Howard and NYU to collaborate on existing research projects and jointly apply for grant funding for new projects. The schools are in the process of applying for funding to develop a mentoring and education program to encourage African-American nurses to obtain specialty nursing certifications. In addition, faculty will be invited to attend research seminars and professional development opportunities at both schools.
“We are thrilled to build new ties to Howard University, one of the country’s top HBCUs, and to work closely with its expert nursing faculty,” said Eileen Sullivan-Marx, PhD, RN, FAAN, dean and Erline Perkins McGriff professor at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing. “By formally establishing this partnership, we can develop unique opportunities for cross-school collaborations that address health inequities and increase our impact on improving care for the patients and communities we serve.”
In addition to fostering faculty and research collaborations, nursing students at Howard and NYU Meyers will have the opportunity to attend new and established programming through educational exchanges. For instance, Howard nursing students will be encouraged to participate in NYU Meyers’ 10-week summer research program, designed to engage undergraduate and graduate students from underrepresented backgrounds in mentored research. The NIH-funded program aims to develop the next generation of cardiovascular disease researchers, and NYU and Howard hope that participation will encourage more nursing students of color to pursue research doctorates in nursing or related fields.
The Howard-NYU partnership was catalyzed by Brown and NYU Meyers’ Audrey Lyndon, PhD, FAAN, RNC, professor and assistant dean for clinical research. While on faculty at the University of California, San Francisco, Lyndon worked closely with Brown on educational exchanges; they look forward to building upon this collaboration to change the future of nursing.
About NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing (@NYUNursing) NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing is a global leader in nursing and health. Founded in 1932, the College offers B.S., M.S., DNP and Ph.D. degree programs providing the educational foundation to prepare the next generation of nursing leaders and researchers. NYU Meyers has several programs that are highly ranked by U.S. News & World Report and is among the top 10 nursing schools receiving NIH funding, thanks to its research mission and commitment to innovative approaches to health care worldwide.
About the Howard University College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences
The College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences is comprised of top-ranked educational programs that prepare health care professionals to be leaders and innovators in practice, education, research and service. Graduates are prepared to deliver patient-centered, interprofessional care and utilize cutting-edge technology and evidence-based practice to improve the health of all people with an emphasis on promoting health equity toward eliminating health disparities. Currently, the college offers degrees in the following accredited programs: bachelor’s degrees in clinical laboratory science, health management sciences, nursing, nutritional sciences and radiation therapy; master’s degrees in nursing, occupational therapy and physician assistant; a post-master’s certificate in nursing; a doctoral degree in physical therapy; and a master’s and doctoral degree in nutritional science in conjunction with the Howard University Graduate School. To learn more, visit cnahs.howard.edu/
Unfortunately, racism and gender inequality still exist not only in our country at large, but also in the nursing field. Because she saw this in anesthesia, Wallena Gould, EdD, CRNA, FAAN, founded and is the CEO of Diversity in Nurse Anesthesia Mentorship Program.
Gould took time to answer our questions. What follows is our interview, edited for clarity and length.
Fred Reed, DNP, CRNA, who has mentored many nurses of color interested in Nurse Anesthesia.
The homepage of the Diversity in Nurse Anesthesia Mentorship Program (DNAMP) states that only 11% of nurse anesthetists are people of color. Why is that? Why hasn’t there been more diversity in these positions?
Honestly, it stems back from decades of graduate nurse anesthesia programs accepting all white cohorts with only one or two nurses of color in each cohort. Also, contributing to the lack of diversity in the nurse anesthesia profession is the historical treatment of Black nurses at the turn of the century. In the early 1900s, until late 1940s, professional nursing associations did not include members of color just based on race. The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA), founded in 1931, included Black CRNAs into the membership in 1944.
In addition, nursing schools including nurse anesthesia programs were segregated until the late 1940s. One of the historical nurse anesthesia programs that consistently accepted diverse cohorts with faculty that mirrored the community since the Jim Crow Era was the Harlem School of Anesthesia founded by Goldie Brangman, CRNA, MEd, MBA. Founded in New York City in 1951, it lasted for 36 years. Brangman would later become the first and only Black Nurse Anesthetists who was elected as President of the AANA in 1973.
The emergence of diverse nurse anesthesia faculty started in the 1990s and has increased in small increments in the 124 graduate programs. In addition, contributing to the 11% of Nurse Anesthetists of color, is the lack of exposure or encouragement for nursing students of color to pursue Nurse Anesthesia at Historical Black Colleges & Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions, and Tribunal American Indian Nursing Schools.
There is also gender inequality in nurse anesthetists. Does this mean that more nurse anesthetists are male than female? If so, why does this disparity exist? What has caused it?
According to the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists 2018 Profile Survey of Nurse Anesthetists, there were 52,000 CRNAs in the country with 59% of female and 41% male providers. Male nurse anesthetists were accepted into the membership in the 1950s, into what was a predominantly female profession. There was a stigma of male nurses in the profession from 1950s—2000s.
Today, more men are entering the profession, but still have a majority of female nursing school cohorts. Also, men are pursuing more specialized careers such as nurse anesthesia with the addition of military male nurses entering the profession.
Why did you establish DNAMP? What did you want to accomplish?
As a nurse anesthesia student enrolled in La Salle University in Philadelphia, I had an individual class assignment in the form of a poster project. My focus was to find out the racial and ethnic composition of the nurse anesthesia profession. In addition, I noticed that the six nurse anesthesia programs in the Philadelphia area did not have one full-time faculty teaching in the programs and only a few students of color in each program.
I was able to retrieve demographic statistics from the AANA and polled the Philadelphia nurse anesthesia students from each program. The data from the national statistics mirrored the Philadelphia programs, which demonstrated a severe lack of diversity in nurse anesthesia.
I approached one of our faculty members who taught regional anesthesia, the late Dr. Arthur Zwerling, DNP, CRNA, DAAPM, about my poster and my urge to do something about it. Dr. Zwerling encouraged me to attend the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Annual Conference in Boston. As a senior nurse anesthesia student, I attended the conference as suggested.
On the first day of the conference, I met Goldie Brangman, CRNA, MEd, MBA (retired), spoke with her for a moment, and knew my purpose was going to make attempts to achieve diversity and equity in the profession.
Today, the non-profit organization, Diversity in Nurse Anesthesia Mentorship Program has mentored more than 510 nurses of color to successfully matriculate into 74 graduate nurse anesthesia programs. We are able to extend the pipeline to diversify the nurse anesthesia profession with a second initiative of a Diversity CRNA HBCU and Hispanic Serving Institution School of Nursing Tour. Lastly, we started our newest initiative with a Diversity Advanced Practice Doctorate Symposium with a collaborative effort of doctorate prepared CRNAs, Nurse Practitioners, Nurse Researchers, and Nurse Midwives to encourage nurses of color to pursue a doctorate and build a body of work.
How can the nursing community at large be an ally or offer support to BIPOC nurses who want to get into anesthesia?
Deans of Nursing serving at predominantly white institutions, HBCUs, Hispanic Serving Institutions, and Tribunal American Indian Nursing Schools can intentionally hire CRNAs of color as full-time, part-time or adjunct faculty. They can also invite CRNAs of color to classrooms to speak to nursing students about nurse anesthesia or teach didactic courses. This includes hiring CRNAs in doctorate-prepared nurse anesthesia programs and affording opportunity to be promoted in rank and publish in nursing peer-review journals. This need to be a national effort to make a profound impact in the trajectory of a diverse profession with accountability.
How does mentoring help assist and encourage more BIPOC to get into this facet of nursing?
For many nurses of color, myself included as a first-generation college graduate, we have been motivated, but just need proper direction in career trajectory. I was a registered nurse for eight years before enrolling in a graduate nurse anesthesia program. So, if CRNAs of color can mentor diverse nurses and nursing students prior to their enrollment into a graduate nurse anesthesia program, students will have the support needed to complete the graduate program successfully.
Is there anything else that nurses need to know regarding racism and gender inequality in anesthesia?
In many nurse anesthesia programs, nurse anesthesia students of color experience social isolation, microaggressions, and in some cases, racism as one of the few in their own program in clinical and or in the classrooms. Nurse Anesthesia students need to be very familiar with student policies and in certain cases, should direct any inequities to the Director of Diversity and Equity Officer for any concerns.
Bankert, M. (1989). Watchful care: A history of America’s nurse anesthetists. New York
Carnegie, M. E. (2000). The path we tread: Blacks in nursing worldwide, 1854-1994. 3rd (eds.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, and National League for Nursing.
American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (2018). AANA 2018 Member Profile Survey. Park Ridge: IL.
The Foundation of the National Student Nurses’ Association (FNSNA) is delighted to announce a new diversity scholarship award sponsored by Johnson & Johnson. Funding may be used for tuition, fees, and books. Use the same application to apply for all FNSNA scholarships. Students must complete the race/ethnicity question to qualify. There is $225,000 available. Awards up to $7,500.
The deadline to apply is February 15, 2021.
Pre-nursing students taking courses to prepare for matriculation into a nursing program
Attending classes and taking no less than six (6) credits per semester
Involvement in student nursing organizations and/or community health activities
Document academic achievement
Establish financial need
U.S. Citizen or Alien with U.S. Permanent Resident Status/Alien Registration Number
High school students are not eligible to apply
Funds are not available for graduate study unless it is for a first degree in nursing
FNSNA Scholarship Application Instructions
Read carefully. Failure to follow all instructions may result in disqualification.
Complete all sections on the online application.
Eligibility:Undergraduate scholarships are available to students currently enrolled in a state-approved nursing program leading to an associate degree, baccalaureate, diploma, direct-entry master’s degree, RN to BSN/MSN completion, LPN/LVN to RN, or accelerated programs. Funds are not available for graduate study unless it is for a first degree in nursing
Action Item: Submission Fee: a non-refundable $10 submission fee must be paid via Stripe (Link to Stripe is within the online scholarship application)
Action Item: An unofficial transcript must be uploaded prior to submitting your application. In addition, grade reports for the fall semester are acceptable if not reported on the transcript.
Possible Action Item: Members of the National Student Nurses’ Association who wish to be considered for scholarships open only to NSNA members, must include membership number. NSNA Board of Directors and Nominating and Elections Committee are ineligible.
Possible Action Item: Students entering LPN/LVN to RN; or RN to BSN/MSN completion programs immediately upon graduation from associate degree or diploma programs must submit a letter of acceptance with the application or official confirmation that the application has been received by the new school. Proof of licensure and enrollment must be provided at the time the scholarship award check is issued.
Eligibility:Applicants must be a U.S. Citizen or Alien with U.S. Permanent Resident Status or hold an Alien Registration Number.
Possible Action Item: If you have been employed as an RN, attach a copy of your resume and license.
All checks are made payable to the school towards the account of the scholarship recipient. Scholarship money will be used to offset the cost of tuition, academic fees and books only.
Funds not used by the end of the scholarship-funding period are to be returned to FNSNA.
Do not include information that is not requested. Do not include photos.
Only complete applications will be considered. The Selection Committee does not accept separate documents after the application has been received.
All applicants will be notified of a decision in March.
As if nursing wasn’t already tough enough, male nurses have to contend with a lot of negative, gender-based stereotypes whenever they don their cotton scrubs. These stereotypes make it more difficult for male nurses to do their jobs well, especially if patients are suspicious of their competence just because they’re male. Here are six male nursing stereotypes that need to be shattered.
1. All nurses are women.
While it’s true that women make up a very high proportion of active nurses, there are some men who work as nurses, too. Approximately 89 percent of nurses are women, and 11 percent are men. While this isn’t a high number, it does prove that not all nurses are women. Other numbers make it clear why nursing is an attractive profession regardless of your gender. The 2019 median pay for registered nurses was $73,300 per year, much higher than the median annual wage for all workers, which was $39,810. If you’re a man looking for a well-paying and fast-growing career in health care, nursing might be the ticket.
2. Nursing is an inherently female role.
Men are expected to be ambitious and career-driven, while women are expected to be caring and nurturing. As a result, caregiving activities are often associated with women’s roles. This includes child care, cooking, household chores, and tending to the sick. Some patients may assume that men lack the nature and bedside manner to be good nurses simply because of their gender, which just isn’t true. This stereotype is most apparent in OB-GYN specialties, since many female patients are uncomfortable with having a male nurse and don’t believe they can provide the care that they need.
3. Male nurses are failed doctors…
Since most nurses are female and most doctors are male, some people make the leap to conclude that any male nurses must have tried to make it as doctors, but couldn’t cut it. This stereotype is harmful because it treats nursing as inferior to being a physician, when, in fact, both roles are necessary to patient care. Without nurses to actually take care of patients and execute the day to day duties, doctors would be able to heal a lot fewer patients. Maybe a few people decided to enroll in nursing school because they couldn’t get into medical school, but the vast majority of nurses—both male and female—have deliberately chosen nursing.
4. …or studying to become doctors.
Some patients will also assume that any men wearing stretch scrubs must be doctors in training, a corollary to the above stereotype. They may ask male nurses how long they’re planning to work as a nurse before they become a doctor, or ask when they will be going to medical school. Again, this stereotype is fueled by the belief that nursing is inferior to practicing medicine. If patients make these kinds of statements, try to use it as a teaching moment to educate them about how nursing is not a gender-specific field and explain why nursing is just as legitimate as being a physician.
5. Men become nurses because it’s easier.
This stereotype is also related to the idea that being a doctor is superior to being a nurse. In this case, people believe that being a nurse is easier than becoming a physician and, therefore, assume that any male nurse was too lazy to try for a more rigorous health care career. Of course, as all nurses know, nursing is a physically, mentally and emotionally demanding career. No matter your gender, it takes resilience and toughness to make it as a nurse—and it is not automatically easier than any other health care profession.
6. Male nurses are a joke.
Media is to blame for this stereotype. Male nurses are either not shown at all, or they’re portrayed to be the butt of the joke. For instance, in the 2000 comedy Meet the Parents, Greg Focker (played by Ben Stiller) is a male nurse, and there are running gags throughout the movie that center on making fun of Greg precisely because he is a male nurse and doesn’t work in a more “masculine” profession. Treating male nurses as a joke, rather than taking them seriously, further contributes to stereotypes and undermines the serious work that nurses of all genders do.
These male nursing stereotypes harm male nurses and the patients they’re trying to treat. Help to do your part to dispel these myths by working to educate people whenever they express these stereotypes.
While enrolled in the Doctor of Nursing Practice program at my PWI (predominantly white institution), I expected to be in the minority. It’s not uncommon to see less minorities in PWIs, especially in graduate level education. My hope was that the workforce would be a little different. Why? In the workforce there are many people from all over who are transplanted in Greenville, North Carolina, my small college town. I live in a place that would not be exactly be hailed as a black Mecca, but it is still somewhat diverse. The population of my county is roughly 55% White, 34% Black , and 6% Hispanic. I was mistaken. It seems the few minorities that were in my town moved away shortly after graduating from the university, or garnering a few years experience in their field.
I cannot even begin to tell you how many people actually assumed that once I graduated I would move to somewhere like Charlotte, or Atlanta. So, as I set out for employment I accepted that there may not be many colleagues that looked like me. What I did not expect was for there to be none.
I happen to work within an organization that I feel supports diversity, and I have a supervisor who is very inclusive and appreciative of all cultures. What I could not help but wonder was “Am I the ‘twofer’?”
A few years ago, I was watching a spinoff movie called ‘What Women Want’ starring the amazing Taraji P. Henson. She plays a spunky black female sports agent. In this particular scene, she was discussing her value to the team with her boss, when he hinted that she was only employed at the company because of her ethnicity and gender. I remember her proclaiming “I am not your twofer!” That struck a chord with me. ‘Twofer’ would imply that you check the box for racial inclusion and gender inclusion in a predominantly homologous role.
Fast forward to today’s newly overt recognition of what many minorities already knew, that inclusivity matters. Duh?! One can’t help to wonder whether we are being offered new roles based off merit and education or off the sudden need for companies to show that they support diversity. Am I more likely to get a job now because I am a black Nurse Practitioner or because I am the right fit? For years, the running joke in the Black community used to be name your kid something simple so that when they submit a job application, someone will not overlook them due to their ‘ethnic’ name. This may be reverse now. Are we sought after because our names indicate clues into our race when we submit applications?
Here is the kicker, being the ‘twofer’ isn’t always a bad thing. Why? Well, a seat at the table allows you to pave the way for more chairs later. This is how we change the narrative. This changes the work place from being a secondary ‘PWI’. This means we don’t all flock to the placers that are more culturally diverse, we create that space where we are so that our whole nation becomes culturally diverse.
So, if the only way to get in the door is to be let in from checking the boxes, it is our responsibility to ensure that we remain at the table because we actually have the education, experience, and expertise to stay there and make it a better place because of us. Or better yet, remember the words relayed to Tara Jaye Frank by the late Dr. Maya Angelou, “You don’t have to give up your seat to anyone. You are just as worthy of that seat as he is, and you have every right to sit proudly in it.”
Flight/Transport nurses travel throughout the country and even throughout the world. An issue in the field, though, is that not many minorities are choosing this line of work. So, how can we attract more minority nurses to flight nursing?
Bob Bacheler, MSN, CCRN, CFRN, Managing Director of Flying Angels, as well as a Board Member at Large for the Air & Surface Transport Nurses Association (ASTNA), brought this to our attention. He then took time to answer questions about why more minorities aren’t in this line of nursing world and how they can become involved if they want to pursue it.
About how many flight nurses are there in all? Do you know what percentage are minorities? Why do you think that there has been a historic underrepresentation of minority nurses in the transport nursing field? Why aren’t more BIPOC working in this field?
The shortage in minority nurses is not unique to transport/flight nursing. According to the 2017 National Nursing Workforce Survey, the nursing profession is comprised of a workforce which is predominantly female and Caucasian. Eighty-percent of all nurses identify as white, twenty percent of all nurses are BIPOC, and seven percent of the overall nursing workforce is male (2017 National Nursing Workforce Survey).
Of the overall nursing workforce, over 165,000 nurses are providing direct patient care in the transport environment (Board of Certification for Emergency Nursing (BCEN)). The flight nurse workforce trends higher in male nurses (18% in flight nursing compared to 7% overall), but lower in the percentage of BIPOC nurses (13% compared to 20% overall). Given the competitive nature getting into flight nursing, it’s beneficial for potential applicants to get their Bachelor’s or even Master’s degrees and certifications such as Critical Care Registered Nurse (CCRN), Certified Emergency Nurse (CEN), Trauma Certified Registered Nurse (TCRN), Transport Professional Advanced Trauma Course (TPATC) and/or Certified Pediatric Emergency Nurse (CPEN).
Becoming a Transport/Flight RN is only the beginning of the educational process. Obtaining certifications such as Certified Transport Registered Nurse (CRTN) or Certified Flight Registered Nurse (CFRN) requires considerable effort. Maintaining those certifications as well as usual requirements of most positions require continued education. According to BCEN, the average transport RN has 16 years of experience, with 78% holding a Bachelor’s degree or higher, which is far higher than the average RN population. Most of the applicants for Transport/Flight Nurses come from critical care nursing positions.
While the underrepresentation of BIPOC in flight nursing could possibly be attributed to a number of factors, a primary factor could be lack of access to the licensure requirements/higher education credentials necessary to obtain a flight nurse position. According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) report on 2018-2019 Enrollment and Graduations in Baccalaureate and Graduate Programs in Nursing, nursing students from minority backgrounds represented only 34.2% of students in entry-level baccalaureate programs, 34.7% of master’s students, 33.0% of students in research-focused doctoral programs, and 34.6% of Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP).
According to the 2018 AACN Healthy Work Environment National Workforce Survey Results, minority representation in critical care nursing has only increased slightly from 14% to 20% in the past 15 years. As identified earlier, critical care nursing is one of the primary career pathways to transport/flight nursing. Public policy interventions that would increase minority access to higher education could help to increase the number of minority nurses who enter the critical care nursing field, which would eventually increase the available pool of qualified applicants for transport positions.
Why are companies looking to hire BIPOC as transport nurses? What do they bring to the field?
As the percentage of BIPOC population increases nationally, companies realize that patients are often best served when the flight RN reflects the community they are serving.
Explain what a flight nurse does. Would someone need to get additional credentials to become a transport nurse?
Flight nurses are registered nurses that have specialty training to provide medical care as they transport patients in either rotor (helicopter) or fixed-wing (plane), or either by air ambulance or commercial aircraft. Flight nurses work with other trained medical professionals like paramedics and physicians. Helicopter RNs are often called upon to help transport critically ill or injured patients to trauma centers. Air Ambulance RNs are often transporting ICU level care patients long distances.
With Commercial Medical Transport, which is Flying Angels’ specialty, RNs are tasked with accompanying patients on commercial airlines transporting patients around the country and the world. These are people who need to be transported long distances, and while they do not need the ICU level of care provided by an Air Ambulance, they do require a nurse with significant experience and skill.
What are some of the benefits of working as a flying nurse? What are the challenges?
Each specialty—Rotor Wing, Air Ambulance, Ground Ambulance, and Commercial Medical Escort—have their own rewards. All have a higher degree of autonomy than nurses who work in hospitals. Rotor Wing nurses are saving lives every day, transporting critically ill patients from trauma scenes to hospitals. Air and Ground Ambulance RNs are practicing at the peak of their skills, in cramped quarters to make sure people are where they can get the best care. Commercial Medical Escort RNs are often reuniting families around the country and the world. In many cases, they are getting people home who would otherwise have no way of getting there. All share in the reward of doing good for their patients as well as sharing a high degree of job security.
Why do you think more minorities should look into this as a career choice?
All Transport/Flight RNs practice the peak of their skills and enjoy tremendous job satisfaction. Opportunities for Transport/Flight RNs are growing each year. Transport/Flight RNs enjoy an esprit de corps and a sense of community. They are also some of the highest-paid nurses working.
What would readers be most surprised about regarding being a flying nurse?
Being a Transport/Flight RN is often hard work, in cramped quarters, for long hours. The emotional toll can be draining. Adjusting to jet lag/time zone transferring can often prove to be difficult.
Is there anything else that is important for our readers to know?
Professional associations in transport/flight nursing promote the esprit de corps. These associations give you a place where you can connect with others and share best practices. Join a professional organization such as ASTNA, which has an employment job board, and attend conferences such as the Air Medical Transport Conference (AMTC).