Unfortunately, some issues or diseases are more prone to affect people in certain communities—case in point, colorectal cancer has been known to disproportionately affect the Black community as compared with white communities. In fact, according to the American Cancer Society, Black people are up to 20% more likely to get colorectal cancer and are also about 40% more likely to die from it.
We interviewed Phyllis Morgan, PhD, FNP-BC, CNE, FAANP, academic coordinator for Walden University’s MSN-FNP program, as she has conducted research on colorectal cancer in men as well as Black men and women’s health issues, including disparity in health and health care.
Why does colorectal cancer disproportionately affect the Black community?
There are several reasons why colorectal cancer disproportionately affects the Black community. First, there is a general lack of knowledge about screening for colorectal cancer, which contributes to inadequate prevention and screening behaviors. There are also various fears that come into play, such as fear of cancer and of a cancer diagnosis, and fatalistic views about cancer.
A recent study showed that in Black Americans, the right side of the colon ages much faster than the left side, which could contribute to this population’s increased risk for colorectal cancer, particularly on the right side of the colon, and at a younger age.
Other factors may include delayed treatment and the fact that Black individuals have a higher incidence of obesity and more often consume a high fat, low fiber diet, which increases risk.
Why are Black people who get colorectal cancer about 40% more likely to die of it than other groups?
In addition to factors such as inadequate prevention and screening behaviors as well as delayed treatment, racial inequities in care also contribute to the fact that Black people who get colorectal cancer are more likely to die of it than other groups. There is a widespread lack of access to care for many people in this population, and some have no health insurance or inadequate health insurance for treatment.
Additionally, lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise can contribute to this.
What are the challenges facing the Black community regarding colorectal cancer?
Some challenges facing the Black community regarding colorectal cancer include inequities in health care, lack of access to quality care, and a lack of adequate resources to educate about the importance of colorectal cancer screening. It is crucial that we increase screening by providing better education for the Black community regarding screening and the importance of polyps being removed from the colon.
Additionally, we need more diverse health care providers, so patients can have providers who look like them and with whom they can connect and relate. Black health care providers can play an important role in helping patients to understand the seriousness of colorectal cancer in their community.
What can nurses do in order to get people in minority communities to go for tests, pay attention to symptoms, etc.?
First, nurses can help by providing more colorectal cancer resources for their communities. In addition, culturally appropriate educational programs and community or faith-based educational programs can be helpful in encouraging people in minority communities to undergo screening.
As an African American woman and advanced practice nurse, I have participated in many projects and studies to identify ways to increase awareness, prevention, and treatment of health issues that impact the Black community. Specifically, I worked on a community and faith-based education program to increase awareness of prostate cancer among Black men, which resulted in an increase in participants’ general knowledge of prostate cancer and treatment by over 40%. I have also implemented successful community and faith-based education programs in North Carolina and Virginia to help educate Black people about colorectal cancer and increase screening behaviors. These types of programs are proven to make a difference.
Nurses can play a vital role in helping community and faith-based organizations develop and execute programs to address health disparities. It’s critically important for research to be conducted, especially in developing culturally appropriate models for diverse communities, so more contributions toward reducing health disparities can be made available to effect positive social change.
Last but not least, Walden University and the National League for Nursing are excited to launch the Institute for Social Determinants of Health and Social Change, where nurse educators and inter-professional colleagues will play an instrumental role in achieving health equity across various demographics. The institute is designed to cultivate these health care professionals into leaders who address the impact of structural racism, socioeconomic status, environment, education, adequate housing, and food insecurity on health and well-being.