Access to Health Care: Platforms and Agendas for the 2020 Presidential Election

Access to Health Care: Platforms and Agendas for the 2020 Presidential Election

Presidential candidates are gearing up for the 2020 presidential election and are sharing their platforms and agendas for creating a stronger and more prosperous nation. Presidential hopefuls have identified a number of proposals focused on ensuring access to health care. Some candidates vow to ensure access to health care by recommending universal health care coverage through a single payer national government health care program referred to as the Medicare- for-all proposal. Other candidates are in favor of some version of this proposal by lowering the Medicare eligibility age to 50 but also retaining the private insurance option. Still, some presidential hopefuls aim to ensure health care coverage by providing a public option for people under age 65 or by strengthening health care coverage by building on the Affordable Care Act. Regardless of a candidate’s position, the debate on how to achieve universal coverage will continue to evolve overtime leading up to the election and way beyond.

Findings from a Kaiser Family Foundation’s survey found that the majority of people who voted on a regular basis are not familiar with or clear on the Medicare-for-all proposal. Survey respondents are seeking solutions to everyday problems such as paying for care, eliminating red tape, and navigating the health care system.

While there are many proposals that are under consideration, the Medicare-for-all proposal is one of the most frequently cited proposals designed to ensure universal health care coverage. There are several versions of this approach to health care coverage, such as the proposed version introduced by Senator Bernie Sanders in 2017. Here we discuss the Medicare for All Act of 2019 (M4A), one of the most recently introduced iterations of the Medicare-for-all approach to health care coverage.

Resources

National news media such as CNN, The New York Times, and The Washington Post traditionally have provided an in-depth discussion and analysis on presidential campaign issues, including health care.    

The following are a few resources that can assist nurses in staying abreast of some of the campaign health care related discussions and other issues relevant to health reform:

This proposed legislation is similar to the legislation introduced by Senator Sanders in 2017 and other single payer legislation proposed by members of Congress. While there are some similarities, there are also some differences. For the most part, Medicare-for-all proposals will constitute a major shift in health care financing and will move from the traditional focus on providing health care coverage exclusively for those age 65 and older to more widespread care coverage for those under age 65.

Here is a brief snapshot of some of the basic components of the M4A introduced by Rep. Pramila Jayapal (D-WA) on February 27, 2019:

  • Single federal government administered program to cover all U.S. residents (including immigrants and possibly undocumented individuals)
  • Open enrollment to those age 19 and under as well as those 55 and older one year after enactment
  • Abolishes traditional benefits covered through traditional Medicaid/Medicare program, Children’s Health Insurance (CHIP), the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program, or TRICARE (health care for active and retired military)
  • Recommends a ban on cost sharing (e.g., copays, deductibles)
  • In addition to the 10 categories of the essential benefits in the Affordable Care Act, proposed additional covered benefits and services include hospitals services; ambulatory patient services; primary and preventive services; prescription drugs and medical devices; mental and substance abuse treatment services; laboratory and diagnostic services, comprehensive services across childbearing cycle; newborn and pediatric services; emergency services and transportation, early and periodic screening as outlined in Medicaid; transportation to health care services particularly for low income and persons with disabilities; and long-term care services and support.

    Source: Health Affairs

As the nation’s largest group of health care workers, nurses must possess a fundamental awareness of the various proposals devoted to ensuring access to health care. This will be particularly important for the many individuals, families, and communities who continue to lack access to care and suffer disproportionately from a number of health conditions and illnesses. As the most trusted profession, we are well suited to lend our voices to advocate for better access to care for all and are encouraged to do so. Our role in educating our policy makers has never been greater as we have firsthand knowledge of how the lack of access to quality health care coverage impacts the health and well-being and even life expectancy of those residing in the United States.

Be sure to stay informed of the various debates and proposals on universal health care coverage. Efforts to revise our current approach to health care financing and access to health care is complex and will require that we stay abreast of the discussions surrounding this issue. The American Nurses Association, the Kaiser Family Foundation, The Washington Post, and Health Affairs, to name a few, traditionally provide a synopsis on where candidates stand on health care issues and universal coverage. In addition to watching the presidential debates, nurses are encouraged to visit the web sites of the various presidential candidates to become more familiar with their position on health care ( e.g., access, universal coverage, health care reform) along with a myriad of other health care issues (e.g., prescription drug coverage, supplemental coverage). As we continue to support access to health care as a human right, our awareness of the issues and advocacy for access to quality health care for all will remain an important factor in the upcoming presidential campaign.  

The Indian Nurses Association of Illinois: Taking Matters to Heart

The Indian Nurses Association of Illinois: Taking Matters to Heart

Quite often a nurse will ask me how to become engaged in the health policy arena. I frequently advise nurses to get involved with their professional organizations as a start. Many nursing organizations have an advocacy and legislative agenda and are oftentimes engaged in advocating on behalf of patients and the profession. Here, we share a conversation with Aney Abraham, DNP, RN, NE-BC, who is a founding member and current president of the Indian Nurses Association of Illinois (INAI). Abraham discusses the origins of her organization and current issues they are addressing.

With regard to legislative issues, Abraham highlights a piece of legislation that was introduced during the 115th Congressional Session. The proposed legislation “H.R. 3592 South Asian Heart Health Awareness and Research Act of 2017” aims to address the high rate of cardiovascular disease in the South Asian community. And while the proposed legislation did not gain much traction during the 115th Congressional Session, the INAI is hopeful that the original sponsors of the proposed legislation will reintroduce it and continue to seek funding to support research focused on finding solutions to the high rate of cardiovascular disease in this population. This targeted approach to improving the health and well-being of this population takes into consideration cultural factors that may influence health status and calls for early intervention and treatment through education and awareness.

As president of the Indian Nurses Association of Illinois (INAI), can you share with me a bit about the INAI, its origins, its mission, and membership?

Aney AbrahamThe Indian Nurses Association of Illinois was established in 2002. I was a nurse with about 18 years of experience at this time and among one of the few nurses that thought of this idea of forming a professional organization for nurses of Indian origin. There were many reasons for starting this organization. The first and foremost was that Indian nurses who immigrated to the U.S. faced many challenges as they transitioned in the United States.

At a Glance:
South Asians and Heart Disease

  • South Asians are one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States.
  • Family origins mostly from: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
  • High cardiovascular prevalence not readily known due to lack of data.
  • Research examining heart disease in Asians in general lacks subgroup analyses.
  • Possible contributing factors include early onset of diabetes, cholesterol abnormalities, westernized diets, and lifestyle.

Source: American Heart Association

For a more detailed discussion of heart disease in South Asian populations, please see the American Heart Association’s Scientific Statement.

Foreign nurses become minorities overnight having little or no orientation to the country or health care facility that they worked for. We realized that many nurses were eagerly anticipating the birth of this organization and thus successfully established the organization in 2002.

The mission of INAI is to identify and meet the professional, cultural, and social needs of nurses of Indian origin. In addition to our mission, our purpose is to ensure that we provide representation and interact with other professional organizations as well as promote cultural awareness by communicating the uniqueness and diversity of the Indian culture.

What do you believe are the top nursing issues impacting our profession today?

Job safety is important to all professions; nurses are not exempt from working in unsafe environments. One of the top nursing issues impacting our profession is workplace violence. Every day, our nurses are impacted by violence perpetrated by patients, their family members, and visitors. Incidents that may start small can spiral out of control within minutes. Even though nurses are very familiar with incidents of violence, research seems to suggest that workplace violence is increasing. We certainly hear about these incidents through TV, print media, and reports from nurses.

The second issue that is impacting our nurses is stress and burnout. Nurses are on the front lines providing direct nursing care, advocating for patients’ medical needs, comforting patients/families, and working with a multidisciplinary team to ensure that patients receive safe high-quality patient care. Stress and busyness can easily escalate with the demands that are placed on nurses daily.

As nurse leaders and professional organizations, we need to work on finding ways to address awareness and ways to mitigate these issues that are facing our profession.

What are some of the top policy or regulatory issues impacting the Indian nursing community?

One of the issues impacting nurses of Indian origin is abusive employment practices. To address this, in 2008 the ANA released the Voluntary Code of Ethical Conduct for the Recruitment of Foreign-Educated Nurses to the United States. The code addresses minimum fair labor standards, civil rights, age discrimination, equal pay, and family/medical leave.

Another issue impacting Indian nurses (majority of which are of South Asian descent) is that they suffer from heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes too frequently and too early in life. Compared to other ethnic groups, South Asians are four times more likely to have heart disease, experience heart attacks 10 years earlier in average, and have a 50% higher mortality rate from heart disease. To address this, in 2017 Rep. Pramila Jayapal (D-WA-7) proposed H.R. 3592 “South Asian Heart Health Awareness and Research Act of 2017.” This is a very specific piece of legislation targeting Asian Americans.

What is the overall purpose of this legislation, and why is it important to you as a nursing organization and to the Asian community at large?

Representatives Pramila Jaypal and Joe Wilson co-sponsored this bill to raise awareness of the alarming rate at which the South Asian community is developing heart disease.

The overall purposes of this legislation are to:1) promote heart healthy eating among Asians; 2) conduct research to understand why South Asians are at an increased risk for developing heart disease and; 3) develop educational tools about heart disease for South Asians.

This legislation is important to us as a nursing organization and to the Asian community at large. The members of the Indian Nurses Association spend a tremendous amount of time offering free community services in the Indian community. Our advanced practice nurses spend time on the weekends visiting the various churches conducting health fairs, offering lectures, and educating the community on the dangers of heart disease and diabetes. Legislation that supports research will enhance our ability to learn more about the root causes of the high risk for the Asian community and prepare us to share lifesaving information with the community at large.

Are there any updates on this given this did not pass out of committee?

We will continue to monitor where this is going as the original sponsors are committed to raising awareness and supporting research in this area.

What are some of the ways that your organization has engaged in community education regarding Asian American cardiovascular disease?

Every year we host a minimum of three community health fairs and lectures in the Indian community. Our members, many of which are advanced practice nurses, have the skills, expertise, and knowledge to effectively lead these health fairs. In addition to the health fairs, we offer free BLS and ACLS certification.

How does INAI prepare its members to be influential advocates in the policymaking arena?

INAI invites public officials and elected officials to speak at our meetings and conferences. For example, some of our guests in the past have included, at that time, Senator Barak Obama before he went on to become President of the United States and Dr. Ann Kalayil, Bureau Chief, Cook County Bureau of Asset Management. Dr. Kalyil was the former President of the South Asian American Policy and Research Institute.

Additionally, members stay informed through educational seminars and educational offerings posted on social media outlets such as Twitter and Facebook. We also stay abreast of issues by following the legislative agenda of the American Nurses Association.

Are there other policy issues that are a part of your health policy agenda?

Many of our members are advanced practice nurses. Thus, we support the policy agenda of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists (NACNS). Their priorities—including nursing workforce issues, health care reform, and health information technology—resonate with our legislative priorities.

The Indian Nurses Association is an organization of about 200 members. We can be more impactful when we combine our voices with other nursing organizations to enhance our policy advocacy on behalf of patients and the profession.

If you had to offer advice on why nurses should be engaged in advocacy and policy advocacy on behalf of patients and the profession, what would you say?

Nurses instinctively advocate for their patients. Equally important is for nurses to engage in legislative and political advocacy. This is needed to advance the profession and patient care. It is important for the voice of the nurse to be heard when any new legislation or bill is being introduced. An example of a recent bill is SB2151, a bill sponsored by Senator Hastings. This bill is about the Nurse Practice Act language surrounding delegation. Specifically, nurse delegation in community-based settings is of concern. Nursing has to provide the definition of what nursing practice entails, how nursing interventions and tasks can be delegated, and in what care settings the delegation can occur.

Nurses can stay informed on legislation that impacts their practice and profession by following nursing forums like @ANAnurses [and] @RN Action.

To stay engaged or not engaged in policy advocacy is a decision each nursing professional has to make, and he or she must always err on the side of staying actively engaged on behalf of the patients and those they serve.

Resources for Staying Informed and Engaged

Resources for Staying Informed and Engaged

As we usher in the 116th Congressional Session beginning January 4, 2019, lawmakers (newcomers and incumbents) will have the opportunity to address a number of legislative and regulatory issues. Immigration reform, access to affordable health care, climate change, and national and global security are among a long list of issues that will be discussed and debated during this new congressional session. And while there are numerous competing demands as with all other legislative sessions, nurses are encouraged to remain abreast of issues that impact health care and the nursing profession.

This year promises to be another great year to continue improving our policy acumen and advocating for those issues that are most important to us and the communities we serve.

Moving forward in 2019, newly elected Lauren Underwood, MSN/MPH, RN, of Naperville, Illinois will represent the 14th Congressional District of Illinois beginning January 3, 2019. Rep. Underwood is committed to ensuring that everyone has access to affordable health care. She is currently one of two nurses serving in the U.S. Congress. Other nurses across the country hold elected positions in their state legislatures and government appointed positions or serve on a number of advisory committees or boards.

This session, lawmakers committed to eliminating health disparities will work to enact legislation that will propel us toward achieving health equity, particularly for underserved populations who suffer disproportionality from a number of illnesses and poor social conditions. No doubt the issue of health care reform will remain front and center, especially in light of the recent ruling from a federal Texas judge deciding that the Affordable Care Act is unconstitutional. Because this debate is far from being over, we must remain vigilant in monitoring what is happening with this historic legislation. And just as 2018 was deemed the Year of Advocacy by the American Nurses Association, we must be mindful that advocacy is always in season calling us to lend our voices on behalf of those we serve. Regardless of position or setting, every nurse can seize the opportunity to weigh in on policy issues that are of importance to them.

So, consider how will you stay engaged and informed of federal and local policies or regulations that may influence your practice or even the degree to which health care is available to those you serve. Remaining updated on policy issues is becoming even more essential for today’s health care professional. Our professional and specialty nursing organizations provide key resources and often have a specific policy agenda. Have you explored what your professional organization’s position is on a number of policy issues important to nursing?

Consider attending an actual or virtual lobby day this year. Each year nursing organizations such as the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), and the American Nurses Association (ANA) convene lobby days in DC but also provide opportunities to participate virtually for those who cannot attend in person. Visit their web sites for more details. Numerous state nursing organizations and other health related organizations across the United States also convene lobby days providing yet another venue to lend your voice to a number of health-related causes. And remember to touch base with the Office of Government Relations within your health care system, university, or college.

Be resolved to visit a legislative official this year to learn more about their health policy agenda and promote the profession as well. Commit to reading the local news for policy hooks as they say, “all politics is local.” Subscribe to the Federal Register to stay informed about opportunities to offer comments on proposed regulations, policies or key reports. The Register also highlights opportunities to apply to serve on national advisory committees. Volunteer to give testimony at hearings and town hall meetings as lawmakers can benefit from hearing directly from nurses on health care matters. Well that should keep us all pretty busy. In the meantime, check out some of the resources listed on the right to help with advancing your engagement in policy advocacy.

Key Resources to Stay Abreast of Health Policy and Legislative Issues

 Nursing and Health Care Related Issues
Health Care Access and Other Health Care Related Issues
Health Equity and Disparities Reduction
State Specific Data

Check with your local and state Departments of Health to locate recent and local statistics.

 

Tracking Legislative Bills
Suggested Reading
Ensuring Equitable Access to Safe and Clean Water Through Advocacy and Legislative Action

Ensuring Equitable Access to Safe and Clean Water Through Advocacy and Legislative Action

Recollections of the Flint water crisis are still vivid in the minds of many Americans. Responses to this crisis in the winter of 2014 needed to be swift and comprehensive. And while it may be hard to believe that access to clean, adequate, and equitable water in America remains at risk, advocates for environmental justice call for continued vigilance in ensuring access to safe and clean water. In this column, we discuss the need to ensure equitable access to this life sustaining resource through advocacy and legislative action with Katie Huffling, RN, MS, CNM, who is the executive director of the Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments.

Katie Huffling, RN, MS, CNM

Ms. Huffling, tell me a bit about yourself and how you became involved in addressing environmental health issues?

I trained as a nurse-midwife at the University of Maryland School of Nursing. While there, I had the great fortune to meet Barbara Sattler and Brenda Afzal. They were leading the only environmental health center at a school of nursing in the country. Through their mentorship, I learned about the many ways that environmental toxicants could affect reproductive health and the health of the growing fetus. It is an area that many of us received little or no content on in nursing school, yet they can have significant negative health impacts across the lifespan. I became very passionate about environmental health issues and when the opportunity arose to work on this full time with the Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments, I jumped at the chance! We are the only national nursing organization focusing solely on the intersection of health and the environment. I now work with nurses and nursing organizations around the country on a number of environmental health issues such as climate change, clean air and water, toxic chemicals, and inclusion of environmental health into nursing curriculum.

Can you give me an example of an environmental health issue that is affecting health right now?

Clean water is one of the greatest public health advancements of the 20th century. As nurses, we recognize clean water is essential to health and a basic human right. It is also essential for providing nursing care. Nurses rely on water to wash their hands, give newborns their first baths, and is essential for the clean linens utilized throughout health care.

Here in the United States we have an expectation that when we turn on the tap clean, healthy water is going to come out. Unfortunately, for many throughout the country this is not the case. Every year, millions of Americans experience waterborne illnesses. Waterborne illnesses are caused by a variety of sources, including waterborne pathogens such as viruses or bacteria, human or animal waste, heavy metals such as lead or arsenic, or industrial pollutants. Certain populations may also be more likely to be exposed to unsafe drinking water, including low-income populations and some communities of color.

I know you have been a champion for environmental justice for some time now. What are some key legislative priorities with regard to clean and safe water?

To address a number of urgent clean water issues, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an update to the Clean Water Act, originally passed in 1972. The Clean Water Act needed to be updated due to the great expansion of knowledge regarding upstream sources of pollution. Researchers now understand how important protecting headwaters and other upstream water sources are to clean water downstream. There was also confusion concerning which waters were protected by the Clean Water Act. This followed two Supreme Court Decisions in 2001 and 2006, directly impacting the drinking water for 1 in 3 Americans.

In 2015, the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers finalized the Clean Water Rule (CWR). This rule was only finalized after an intensive stakeholder process in which they held over 400 meetings and received over 1 million comments, 87% of which were in favor of the rule. The Clean Water Rule clarifies which “waters of the US” will be regulated under the Clean Water Act. These include traditional navigable waters, tributaries, a small number of waters that have a significant nexus to traditional navigable waters, interstate waters, or territorial seas, and also exempts certain waters such as puddles, ornamental ponds and rain gardens, and continues certain farm exemptions.

After the rule was finalized, a number of plaintiffs sued the EPA. The rule was suspended by the Sixth Circuit court until the outcome of these suits. This stay was overruled in February 2018. During this time the Trump Administration announced they were going to suspend the rule until 2020. This suspension was overruled by the courts in August and the CWR must now be enforced in 26 states.

The issues that the CWR addresses are very important to environmental justice communities. If the rule is repealed, low-income communities and communities of color—who already face disproportionate exposures from other environmental hazards—may be most impacted. These communities, along with rural communities, are more likely to have poor infrastructure that is not able to handle contaminants in the water. These communities also may not have the resources to upgrade their water systems. They may also be more likely to rely on well water that can be more susceptible to pollution from upstream sources.

Turning to implications for nursing, why and how can nurses get involved in addressing this issue?

The EPA has announced they plan to permanently repeal the CWR; however, this repeal has not been finalized yet. If they repeal this rule, the drinking water for over 117 million Americans could be negatively impacted. Once this official announcement occurs, the nursing voicing will be crucial to protecting this vital public health regulation. There are many ways nurses can be active in this policy arena:

  • Watch the new webinar from the Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments for one-hour free CE that reviews the CWR and provides opportunities for action (https://envirn.org/the-clean-water-rule).
  • Sign this petition to Acting Administrator Wheeler asking to him to keep the CWR in place.
  • Call your Senators and Congress people and ask them to support the CWR.
  • Engage your professional nursing organizations—write a newsletter article and ask them to write a letter to Acting Administrator Wheeler or to Congress. As the most trusted profession, when our nursing organizations actively engage on issues such as clean water, Congress listens.

The most vulnerable among us are harmed by dirty water. By actively engaging on clean water issues, nurses can help policymakers and the public make the connection that clean water is essential to health.

Are there additional resources we should be aware of?

The American Nurses Association’s Principles of Environmental Health for Nursing Practice with Implementation Strategies (which is available online here).

The Alliance frequently offers webinars (many with free CE) on a variety of environmental health topics. We’re free to join and if you sign up for our newsletter you will be notified of upcoming webinars and opportunities for action. To learn more, visit https://envirn.org.

Reversing the Rise in Maternal Death Rates: Implications for Nursing Awareness and Advocacy

Reversing the Rise in Maternal Death Rates: Implications for Nursing Awareness and Advocacy

While maternal outcomes have improved over the years, a considerable number of women in the United States die from or continue to experience a number of pregnancy-related complications. According to the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion [NCCDPHP], each year approximately 700 women die of pregnancy related causes while 50,000 women experience severe pregnancy complications. Women living with chronic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity are at a higher risk for complications during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. In particular, African American women are more likely to die from pregnancy-related complications when compared to their white counterparts. Notably, maternal mortality is higher in the United States than in any other developed nation.

Severe maternal mortality is due to severe pregnancy complications. According to the NCCDPHP, these rates have doubled from 2000–2010 and have affected more than 50,000 women in the United States. Some contributing factors include: maternal age, persisting chronic conditions, complications during delivery, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Researchers note that approximately half of pregnancy-related deaths are preventable and point to implications for reducing maternal mortality.

Efforts to reverse these disturbing statistics will require a multifaceted and comprehensive approach. Interventions must include a focus on better data collection, quality improvement measures, provider and patient education, earlier identification and intervention targeting high-risk women, proactive preconception health approaches, and improved obstetrical and maternal care services. Many hospitals and health systems across the country are addressing the mortality death rates and have designed programs, which include some of the aforementioned strategies.

 

RESOURCES

American Colleges of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
www.acog.org/Advocacy/ACOG-Legislative-Priorities

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
www.awhonn.org

Maternal Health Task Force
www.mhtf.org/topics/maternal-health-in-the-united-states

Severe Maternal Morbidity in the United States
www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/severematernalmorbidity.html

The rise in maternal morbidity and mortality has stimulated discussion and action among nongovernmental and governmental agencies, advocacy, and professional groups and the United States Congress. Groups such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Black Women’s Health Imperative, and the Alliance for Innovation on Maternal Health (AIM), to name a few, are speaking out for legislative action. The table below provides a brief snapshot of legislative proposals introduced at the federal level during 2018, the second half of the 115th Congressional Session. These and other initiatives are a critical first step to reversing the poor maternal health outcomes for women.

Nurses are encouraged to stay abreast of this issue by identifying the state of maternal health in their respective communities. Nurses wishing to improve maternal outcomes can do so by helping to identify high-risk populations and working with their respective institutions to develop educational programs, outreach initiatives, and quality standards for maternal care. As health care providers, nurses are well-suited to work with multidisciplinary teams to disseminate best practices as well as advocate for sound public policies focused on alleviating poor maternal outcomes.

Additionally, nurses can look to professional/specialty organizations to identify what organizations are doing to address maternal mortality. For example, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, one of nursing’s leading organizations devoted to women’s health and newborns, has a number of resources on this issue and advocates for work that expands the work of state-based Maternal Mortality Review Committees. Maternal Mortality Review Committees are critical to collecting, reviewing, and monitoring data on pregnancy-related deaths.

 

Maternal Health: Proposed Legislation

Number Name Sponsor Provisions Comment
H.R. 5977 Mothers and Offspring Mortality and Morbidity Awareness Act (MOMMA’s Act) Rep. Robin Kelly (D-IL) · Establishes an expert federal review committee to help enforce national obstetric emergency protocol

· Establishes best practices between providers and hospital systems

· Improves access to culturally competent care training and workforce practices

· Standardizes data collection to collect uniform data

· Expands Medicaid coverage to cover the full postpartum period

Introduced 5/25/18
H.R. 5761 Ending Maternal Mortality Act of 2018 Rep. Raja Krishnamoorth (D-IL) Amends the Public Health Service Act to require Department of Health and Human Services to publish every two years a national plan to reduce maternal deaths occurring during or within 12 months of pregnancy Introduced 5/10/18
H.R. 5457 / S. 2637 Quality Care for Moms and Babies Act Rep. Eliot Engel (R-NY) / Sen. Debbie Stabenow (D-MI) Amends Title XI of the Social Security Act to improve the quality, health outcomes, and value of maternity care by developing maternity care quality measures and supporting maternity care quality collaboratives Introduced 4/16/18
H. Resolution. 818 / S. Resolution. 459 Black Maternal Health Week Rep. Alma Adams (D-NC) / Sen. Kamala Harris Creates awareness about the maternal health care crisis in the black community and the urgency to reduce maternal and morbidity among black women Introduced 4/11/18

Source: https://www.govtrack.us