First described by the Egyptians in 1550 BC as “sending forth heat from the bladder,” the urinary tract infection (UTI) is a frequent diagnosis seen in urgent care and doctor’s offices. Burning upon urination, urinary frequency, urinary urgency, smelly urine, and new or changed discharge—these are the hallmarks of a UTI.

Cystitis is an infection of the lower urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys. UTIs affect about 150 million people every year with women greater than men. During any one year, about 10% of women will have a UTI and half of all women will have a UTI in their lifetime. Risk factors include sexual intercourse, diabetes, obesity, female anatomy, and family history. Although sex is a risk factor, UTI is not considered a sexually transmitted disease and a female can get a UTI even when a condom is used. E. coli is the most frequently isolated organism, though other coliform bacteria or yeast could be the culprit.

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