Due to nursing’s involvement in examining phenomena within a contextual health care framework, phenomenology is not only conducive to the discovery of information but also the development of nursing knowledge essential to the profession.
The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilized as the method for nursing research studies because it is comprised of data collection tools such as open-ended questions and observational cues appropriate for nursing research practices and methodologies. Phenomenology is also quite useful to qualitative nurse researchers because it can be an effective vehicle for illuminating and clarifying fundamental issues in the health care sector.
Because the science of nursing is concerned with treating individuals holistically, many nurses recognize the significance of individuals’ experiences and support them in exercising control over their health and well-being. Based on this understanding, phenomenology plays a pivotal role in the nursing profession because it values not only the individual’s experience but also the principles and modalities of their holistic healing into daily life and clinical practice.
Current and Postmodern Influence on Nursing
The current and postmodern philosophical schools of thought play an integral role in the nursing profession because of its contribution to the creation and development of nursing science and theory.
Some of the ways these philosophies helped contribute to the nursing profession were through the promotion and utilization of multiple methods for the development of scientific understanding and incorporation of different techniques to improve overall understanding of humanistic idiosyncrasies.
By developing and applying the discipline-specific knowledge that was required, different philosophical theories and perspectives were able to aid in recognizing the relationships of human responses to health issues while addressing the biological, behavioral, and cultural domains of nursing science simultaneously.
Based on this reality, modernism and postmodernism not only dislodged the authority of a single research paradigm in nursing science but also emphasized the meaning of integration of qualitative and quantitative research into a holistic and dynamic model to improve nursing practice in the clinical setting.
Why Phenomenology is Imperative in Nursing
Due to the nature of its theoretical teachings, phenomenology has become an important philosophical worldview in the nursing profession. Phenomenology not only requires nursing researchers to understand it as a philosophy but also as a phenomenon tied to human consciousness in the form of lived experiences. This realization illustrates the significance of phenomenology as a fundamental field of inquiry in the nursing profession and the scientific community at large.
Therefore, by having a deeper understanding of phenomenological philosophy, nurses are not only able to make important clinical decisions but also innovative and progressive approaches vital to improving patient care processes in the clinical health care sector and beyond.
As an individual who holds himself to a high professional standard, I have grown to recognize three distinctive qualities that I believe every great nurse should possess: compassion, integrity, and perseverance.
Compassion is not merely the sympathy you show toward a friend or family member in need, but rather the empathy that drives you to act on an inner desire to help those around you. In the summer of 2008, I was fortunate to take part in a medical mission trip overseas serving the underserved populations in the Philippines. During my time abroad, I was inspired by the amount of compassion the nurses and medical staff exemplified in the clinical setting. As a volunteer, I was astonished not only by the sheer magnitude of homelessness that has stricken the country, but also by the positive impact that I was making on a daily basis. By allowing myself to be immersed in the service of others, I have grown to appreciate the many blessings that God has given me, and develop an unyielding compassion toward others that I believe is essential in today’s rapidly growing society.
The second quality that I believe a great nurse must possess is integrity. Integrity means doing the right thing at all times and in all circumstances, whether or not anyone is watching. During my tenure as an emergency room nurse, I was assigned to care for a little girl complaining of a headache. The father confided in me that her symptoms began after she was inadvertently hit in the head with a soccer ball. The medical doctor on staff quickly dismissed the girl as having a “minor headache” and told the father that ice and rest was all that she required. As a nurse of integrity, I did not feel comfortable sending the little girl home after she confided in me that she never had a headache this painful before. Seeing her grimace in pain, I urgently requested the doctor to have a computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan prepared for the patient. Despite the doctor’s initial objection and reluctance, he finally agreed, and upon evaluation of the final results, we discovered a small intracranial hemorrhage that was beginning to form. Seeing the tears of gratitude the father displayed allowed me to recognize the importance of doing the right thing even in the midst of adversity. It was this realization that has continued to fuel my innate desire to remain truthful and transparent in all aspects of my nursing care while fostering the deep interpersonal relationships that I form with my patients.
Lastly, the quality of perseverance plays a vital role in determining an excellent nurse. When I first began nursing school, I was completely unprepared for the academic expectations that were required of me. Due to my immaturity, my grades suffered immensely during the early stages of my academic career and I was humiliated and rejected from numerous nursing schools. Despite the constant vilification and dejection that seemed to surround me during this tremendously dark period of my life, I remained optimistic knowing that I had a purpose in this world. Within the next couple of months, I decided to make a conscientious effort to become more academically driven and was eventually accepted into West Coast University’s nursing program where I excelled scholastically, receiving numerous awards such as the Perennial Dean’s List, the Kaiser Permanente RN Scholarship, and ultimately culminating to my successful graduation in 2013.
As I look back on what I have accomplished over the years, I feel extremely blessed to have been surrounded by amazing individuals who inspired me to be the nurse that I am today. And it is because of this realization that I have come to recognize that being a great nurse is not measured by how intelligent you are but rather your commitment to providing indelible and compassionate care to those who seek it.
Mental illness is a growing epidemic in today’s modern society. Due to the prevailing societal stigma that exists for this vulnerable population, there is often a huge disparity and lack of empathy present in the care provided for individuals suffering from psychiatric disorders.
As a psychiatric-mental health nurse, I have worked closely with patients suffering from a wide gamut of psychosomatic disorders ranging from schizophrenia to bipolar disorder, and I have discovered that the art of empathy is often a necessity to ensure quality patient care is maintained at all times.
Last month, I was caring for a young girl suffering from major depressive disorder. Based on the report I received from the previous nurse, I discovered that the girl was noncompliant with all her medications as well her treatment at the hospital. When I first met the girl, she appeared extremely depressed and exhibited little to no motivation to participate in her plan of care. Upon closer inspection of her chart, I was surprised to discover that it was her birthday, so I decided to collaborate with my team members to see if we can possibly bring a cake for her to enjoy on her special day. When the cake arrived, I noticed that we did not have any candles so I decided to be creative and use a crayon instead, which worked perfectly since it was also made out of wax. When we went into her room, she was pleasantly surprised to see us standing there with a cake in our hands singing “happy birthday.” Witnessing her smile for the first time brought a tear to my eye because it illustrated to me the importance of treating all patients with the same dignity and respect regardless of their mental illness or diagnosis. After that encounter, I noticed a significant difference in her overall demeanor and we ultimately established a rapport that enabled her to take the medication and treatment she needed in order to regain her sense of well-being.
As a nurse, I have come to realize that patients do not solely rely on medications to get better, but rather on the bond and trust formed between themselves and their designated health care provider. As a result of this realization, I try to make a concerted effort every day to continue to develop not only creative approaches to my nursing care but also empathetic techniques that ensure patient safety and satisfaction is achieved across the patient gamut.
As the prevalence for individuals requiring inpatient psychiatric treatment and stabilization has increased over the years, more and more nurses are becoming curious as to what a psychiatric-mental health nurse actually does on a given shift.
Before I delve into the specifics as to what my roles and responsibilities are as a psychiatric-mental health nurse, I want to begin by providing you a brief background on my education, training, and reasoning behind choosing psychiatry as my specialization.
Prior to working as a psychiatric-mental health nurse, I received my BSN degree from West Coast University. As a nursing student, I was exposed to a wide gamut of psychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety, mood disorders, and schizophrenia, but I never truly understood the subtle complexities that psychiatric-mental health nurses endure behind the scenes.
After graduation, I worked briefly in the ER and ICU settings, which taught me invaluable lessons such as time management and prioritization, but it never fully gave me the satisfaction I was yearning for. It was at this moment that I decided to pursue a career in psychiatry in hopes of better understanding not only mental illness but also the psychological, emotional, and spiritual ailments that patients experience on a daily basis.
Because of the stigma associated with working in psychiatry, I am frequently asked what my typical day looks like working with this vulnerable population. And to put it plainly, working as a psychiatric-mental health nurse can be both extremely challenging yet rewarding.
Typically in psychiatry, most mental health hospitals utilize an 8-hour shift system, which is evenly divided to AM, PM, and NOC shifts. Since I currently attend graduate school full time, I work per diem NOC shift, which is from 11:30 PM – 08:00 AM.
11:00 PM – 11:30 PM: During this time, I look at the schedule to see where I am assigned and what my role will be for that day. Depending on the staffing situation, my role may vary as the charge nurse, staff nurse, preceptor, or a breaker.
Once I know where I am appointed to and what my role will be, I normally like to go to my assigned unit, perform medication count with the previous shift, and speak with the nurses as to how their shift went. I do this because it gives me an opportunity to “feel out” the unit and get a sense of what might be required depending on the type of patients we have and the acuity level of the hospital.
11:30 PM – 12:00 AM: Once I’ve performed my aforementioned tasks, my team and I receive report on each patient on the unit. In psychiatry, our reports are more heavily focused on “patient presentation,” which details the patient’s mood, affect, their medication compliance, comorbidities, and their behavior. Since most patients admitted to our hospital are either held involuntarily on a 5150 hold for Danger to Self, Danger to Others, or Gravely Disabled, it is essential for us to know how each patient is responding to treatment as well as their behavioral presentation.
In addition to this, the previous shift notifies us if there are any patients that require 1:1 observation (reserved for patients who are highly suicidal, combative, or medically compromised) as well as any potential “watchers” who can be unpredictable, violent, or dangerous. Providing this information is crucial because it not only makes us more mindful of any potential issues we may encounter during our shift but also hypervigilant in ensuring our unit remains safe and secure.
Lastly, the previous shift also provides us with a report on any incoming or pending admissions as well as any discharges that are expected to occur the following morning.
12:00 AM – 12:15 AM: Once report is completed, the charge nurse then assigns the nurses with their patient load as well as their assignments for that day. Once I receive my assignment, I normally like to check on my patients who are asleep and introduce myself to those who are awake. By doing this, it gives me an opportunity to not only meet my patients, but also form a rapport with them while discussing any concerns they may have.
12:15 AM – 04:00 AM: After checking up and introducing myself to my patients, the rest of my day ultimately depends on what needs immediate attention (pending admissions, patients requesting for PRN medications, medical or psychiatric emergencies, etc.).
If for example there is an incoming admission to be expected, I usually take this time to read more about the patient, why they are coming to the hospital, and organize their chart and paperwork for them to sign.
Although performing an admission can be a tedious process, inpatient psychiatric admissions are unique in that it depends on the patient, when they arrive, and how cooperative they are. If patients are uncooperative, admissions can be difficult and timely so efficiency is truly predicated on how organized the nurse is.
If there are no pending admissions, however, I usually take this time to chart on my patients, which involves filling out nursing flowsheets, writing or updating care plans, auditing charts, and reassessing behavioral statuses. In addition to this, the nurses and floor staff is required to round on their patients every 15 minutes to ensure that patients remain safe, secure, and free from any harm.
04:00 AM – 05:00 AM: During this time, I am on my break. Regardless of the demands of the day, I normally try to eat some food and utilize my break time as a way for me to recharge and revitalize before coming back on the unit.
05:00 AM – 07:00 AM: Once I arrive back on my assigned unit, I take this time to carefully go over and make any necessary revisions to my charting to ensure that it’s valid and free from error. I also check up with my patients to ask how they slept and to reassess their psychosomatic symptoms and behavior to determine if their individualized treatment is either effective or ineffective.
After speaking with my patients, I then take this time to administer any scheduled or PRN medications they may require. Depending on the type of medication the patient is taking, I typically like to ask my patient how they feel about the medication and if they notice any improvement in regards to their psychosis or behavior.
As a psychiatric nurse with five years of experience, I have learned that active listening is critical in psychiatry because it not only validates what the patient is saying, but also reaffirms their trust in you as their health care provider.
07:00 AM – 07:30 AM: At this time, we typically serve breakfast to our patients while providing grooming necessities for individuals who want to shower.
While breakfast is being served, I make an effort to make my rounds around the unit to ensure that the 15-minute rounds are being completed while checking on the patients who refuse to eat or are actively psychotic, hearing voices, or feeling anxious and choose to stay in their rooms. Depending on the patient’s presentation, I do my best to lend an empathetic ear while offering support and guidance in addition to offering PRN medications to help them in their current psychotic and behavioral state.
07:30 AM – 08:00 AM: Once breakfast is over and the patients’ needs are attended to, we give report to the incoming AM shift and discuss any significant behavioral changes or issues that we encountered during our shift. In addition to this, I make it a point to relay how my patients are feeling regarding their treatment and any concerns they may have on their medications.
Once I completed my report, I say my farewells and introduce my patients to the incoming AM nurse who will receive my caseload. This is to ensure that my patient is aware of the shift change and that continuity of care is promoted.