The United States is in the midst of an epidemic. Obesity rates across the country are staggering, having increased dramatically over the last 25 years. Research suggests that more than one third of adults, or over 72 million people, were obese in 2005–2006.1
Though there was no significant change in obesity numbers between 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 for men or women, this does not negate the need to direct attention and intervention efforts into mitigating the effects of obesity and addressing the underlying reasons for its high prevalence.2 And while this problem runs rampant among adults, it has been steadily encroaching upon children and is particularly disproportionate among minorities.
Defining obesity: a refresher
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the body mass index (BMI), which correlates with body fat, determines overweight and obesity ranges using weight and height. An adult with a BMI of 25–29 is considered overweight; a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.3 BMI is calculated by weight in kilograms and height in meters squared (kg/m2); for English measurements, use lb/in2 x 703. BMI charts are also widely available on the Web, including at the CDC website (www.cdc.gov).
Obesity has been linked to a number of chronic health conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer, as well as increased health care expenditures—it simply costs more to be obese.4 In particular, an obese person spends $1,429 more in medical bills compared to a person of a healthy weight. The annual obesity expenditure in the United States is an estimated $147 billion dollars.5
While the pervasiveness of obesity is troubling in and of itself, some of the more shocking statistics are found amongst minority populations. A 2009 CDC Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report revealed that from 2006–2008 African Americans had 51% higher prevalence of obesity compared to Caucasians, with Hispanics having a 21% higher prevalence.6 African American and Hispanic women seem to be particularly vulnerable and representative among these numbers. Recent data show racial and ethnic obesity disparities for women, but not for men. Non-Hispanic black and Mexican American women were more likely to be obese than non-Hispanic white women. For men in general, obesity prevalence rose from 27.5% in 1999–2000 to 32.2% in 2007–2008.2
The disproportionate instances of obesity within minority populations may have roots in a number of factors. However, none can be addressed without examining the effects of U.S. health disparities, as well as the impact of social determinants of health. Two overarching national public health goals in the United States are to increase healthy life expectancy at all ages and to eliminate health inequalities according to gender, race or ethnicity, education or income, disability status, geographic location, and sexual orientation.7 But persistent health disparities—inequalities in health outcomes because of social disadvantages—have been an ongoing challenge within minority communities, hindering those national goals.4 According to Carter-Pokras & Baquet (2002), any health disparity should be viewed as a chain of events signified by a difference in environment; access to, utilization of, and quality of care; health status; or a particular health outcome that deserves scrutiny.8 Education and income levels contribute to disparities, but living conditions and behavioral risk factors also impact health.
These disparities become more notable considerations as the minority population increases. A U.S. Census Bureau population profile of 2010 indicates that over the past decade America’s population has grown by 9.7%, accounting minorities for 92% of that growth. The number of Hispanics grew approximately 43%, with the Asian population at the same rate, and the African American population increased in number by 11%. The total minority population increased 29% over the past decade, and now comprises approximately one-third of the American population.9,10
Evidence also suggests a relationship between socioeconomic status, income, education, and higher rates of overweight and obesity.1 Members of minority communities often reside in more urban areas, and these areas may provide limited or no access to healthy options for food, physical activity, or security. Residents in low-income urban areas are more likely to report greater neighborhood barriers to physical activity, such as limited opportunities for daily walking or exercise and reduced access to stores that sell healthy foods, especially large supermarkets.11
Nurses in the fight against obesity
Public health nurses are effective in responding not just to the needs of the majority population, but also allowing for, even ensuring, the inclusion of minority segments. Aware of the unique challenges these populations face, nurses can educate—and advocate—for change where they work and live. After all, isn’t the term “public” indicative of representation of diversity among the population?
Obesity is a complex problem, and finding the root causes will help to inform possible solutions. Contributing to the problem is a lack of income and education, cultural differences, environmental changes, learned behaviors for coping, and food advertisements. From an economic perspective, people purchase foods they can afford; they are not necessarily thinking about the future consequences of those choices. And with lower-income populations—also consistently disproportionately composed of minorities—affordable healthy food alternatives should be strongly advocated, (i.e., farm cooperatives, farmers’ markets, free community nutrition workshops, etc.). Safety concerns might also make it hard for people to walk about their neighborhoods and for children to go out and play; nurses can inform their patients of known safe exercise areas and other community resources, like high school gymnasiums or free athletics classes at a public park or YMCA.
The influence of social factors, access to quality food and exercise, and individual factors around maintaining a healthy weight must be addressed. Each has an indirect and direct influence on behavioral choices and may ultimately impact weight. Individual-level characteristics (including income, cultural preferences, and genetic predisposition) contribute to macro-level considerations (neighborhood services, government health initiatives, education, etc.). These all feed the obesity epidemic, the significance of which public health nurses cannot overlook. Structures that affect physical activity behaviors and dietary choices are emerging as important and are potentially amenable to public health intervention efforts.
Yet, nurses cannot fight alone. A collaborative effort must be sought to help sustain community programs, which means establishing dialogue and partnerships between all stakeholders. Key legislative offi cials, health care providers, local businesses, community residents, journalists, educational administrators, nursing organizations—all must rally to address the problem of obesity systemically. The CDC’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity and the American Obesity Society (www.obesity.org) have online resources to help nurses and other health care professionals combat obesity. On an individual level, nurses can assess their own living, working, social, and other environments. They can engage and advocate for their immediate community and, ultimately, their state and country. Nurses working in public health facilities can be especially influential, as they may treat patients with the fewest resources. Educating one’s patients—whether through simple instructions during an exam, dispersing informational brochures, or even volunteering to speak at local schools and community centers—is the fi rst step in prevention.
Though health care is not yet available to all at this moment in history, public health nurses can reduce the impact of obesity on the nation’s most vulnerable populations.
- C.L. Ogden, M.D. Carroll, M.A. McDowell, and K.M. Flegal, “Obesity among adults in the United States—No Statistically Significant Change Since 2003–2004,” NCHS Data Brief No 1, National Center for Health Statistics (2007). Accessed 2011. www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db01.pdf.
- K.M. Flegal, M.D. Carroll, C.L. Ogden, and L.R. Curtin. “Prevalence and Trends in Obesity Among US Adults, 1999-2008,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303, no. 3 (2010): 235–241. Accessed 2011. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.2014.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Defining Overweight and Obesity,” (2010). Accessed 2011. www.cdc.gov/obesity/defining.html.
- A. Stratton, M.M. Hynes, and A.N. Nepaul. “The 2009 Connecticut Health Disparities Report,” Connecticut Department of Public Health (2009). Accessed 2011. www.ct.gov/dph/cwp/view.asp?a=3132&q=433794.
- Diana Holden. Fact Check: The Cost of Obesity. “Fit Nation” coverage, February 2010. CNN. com, accessed 2011. www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/02/09/fact.check.obesity/index.html.
- L. Pan, D.A. Galuska, B. Sherry, A.S. Hunter, G.E. Rutledge, W.H. Dietz, and L.S. Balluz. “Differences in Prevalence of Obesity Among Black, White, and Hispanic Adults—United States, 2006–2008.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 58, no. 27 (2009): 740–744. Accessed 2011. www.cdc.gov
- Sam Harper and John Lynch. “Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Health Behaviors Among U.S. States, 1990–2004.” Public Health Reports 122 (2007): 177–189.
- Olivia Carter-Pokras and Claudia Baquet. “What is a ‘Health Disparity’?” Public Health Reports 117 (2002): 426–434.
- “The Census: Minority report,” The Economist, Accessed March 31, 2011. www.economist.com/node/18488452.
- “Population Profi le of the United States.” U.S. Census Bureau. Accessed 2011.
- J.L. Black and James Macinko. “Neighborhoods and Obesity.” Nutrition Reviews 66, no. 1 (2008): 2–20.
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